Molecular epidemiology of canine parvovirus type 2 in Vietnam from November 2016 to February 2018
Canine parvovirus type 2 (CPV-2) was first identified in the late 1970s; it causes intestinal hemorrhage with severe bloody diarrhea in kennels and dog shelters worldwide. Since its emergence, CPV-2 has been replaced with new genetic variants (CPV-2a, CPV-2b, and CPV-2c). Currently, information about the genotype prevalence of CPV-2 in Vietnam is limited. In the present study, we investigated the genotype prevalence and distribution of CPV-2 in the three regions of Vietnam.
Rectal swabs were collected from 260 dogs with suspected CPV-2 infection from northern, central, and southern Vietnam from November 2016 to February 2018. All samples were identified as parvovirus positive by real-time PCR, and further genotyping was performed using a SimpleProbe® real-time PCR assay.
Of the 260 Vietnamese CPV-2 isolates, 6 isolates (2.31%) were identified as CPV-2a, 251 isolates (96.54%) were identified as CPV-2c and 3 isolates (1.15%) were untypable using the SimpleProbe® real-time PCR assay. In northern Vietnam, the percentages of CPV-2a and CPV-2c were 2.97% (3/101) and 97.3% (98/101), respectively. In central Vietnam, the percentages of CPV-2a and CPV-2c were 1.11% (1/90) and 98.89% (89/90), respectively. In southern Vietnam, the percentages of CPV-2a and CPV-2c were 3.03% (2/66) and 96.97% (64/66), respectively. CPV-2b was not observed in this study. The VP2 genes of CPV-2c in Vietnam are more genetically similar to those of CPV-2c strains in China and Taiwan than to those of prototype CPV-2c strains (FJ222821) or the first Vietnamese CPV-2c (AB120727).
The present study provides evidence that CPV-2c is the most prevalent variant in Vietnam. Phylogenetic analysis demonstrated that the recent Vietnamese CPV-2c isolates share a common evolutionary origin with Asian CPV-2c strains.
FVM- Vietnam National University of Agriculture