Chicken anemia virus in northern Vietnam: molecular characterization reveals multiple genotypes and evidence of recombination
Chicken anemia virus (CAV) has a ubiquitous and worldwide distribution in the chicken production industry. Our group previously reported a high seroprevalence of CAV in chickens from northern Vietnam. In the present study, tissue samples collected from a total of 330 broiler and breeder commercial chickens in eleven provinces of northern Vietnam were tested for CAV infection. All samples were collected from clinically suspected flocks and diseased birds. The CAV genome was detected in 157 out of 330 (47.58%) chicken samples by real-time PCR. The rate of CAV genome detection in young chickens at 2–3 weeks of age (61.43%), which had not been previously reported in Vietnam, was significantly higher than that in older chickens at 4–11 (44.83%) and 12–28 (35.71%) weeks of age. For nine representative CAV strains from broiler chickens, analysis of the entire protein-coding region of the viral genome was conducted. Phylogenetic analysis of the VP1 gene indicated that the CAVs circulating in northern Vietnam were divided into three distinct genotypes: II, III, and V. Only one of the nine Vietnamese CAV strains clustered with a vaccine strain (Del-Ros), whereas the other eight strains did not cluster with any vaccine strains. Among the three genotypes, genotype III was most widely found in northern Vietnam and this included three sub-genotypes (IIIa, IIIb, and IIIc). The Vietnamese CAV strains were closely related to the Chinese, Taiwanese, and USA strains. One strain was defined to be of genotype V, which is a newly reported CAV genotype. Moreover, recombination analysis suggests that this novel genotype V was generated by recombination between genotype II and sub-genotype IIIc.
Dong Van Hieu
FVM- Vietnam National University of Agriculture
Keywords: CAV, chicken, genotype