Grass tetany, or hypomagnesia, is caused by low blood levels of magnesium. It is most prevalent when cows and ewes that are in late gestation or heavy lactation graze lush spring growth, usually in April and May, but cases can be seen in the fall. Rapidly
Bloat is an overdistention of the rumenoreticulum with the gases of fermentation, either in the form of a persistent foam mixed with the ruminal contents, called primary or frothy bloat, or in the form of free gas separated from the ingesta, called secondary
CHOLANGIOHEPATITIS IN BROILER CHICKENS 125.126.Cholangiohepatitis (CAH) in broiler chickens is characterized by inflammatory proliferative and dystrophic necrobiotic alterations in bile ducts and the liver parenchyma. Usually, no clinical signs are observed.
NECROTIC ENTERITIS 113.. Necrotic enteritis (NE) is an acute Clostridium infection characterized by severe necroses of intestinal mucosa. The disease begins suddenly, with a sharp increase in death rate. A strong dehydration is observed. The skin is sticked
MYCOPLASMA 99. 100. 101. MG is characterized by respiratory symptoms and a prolonged course of the disease. Particularly susceptible are hens and turkeys at all ages. The aetiological agent is M. gallisepticum. In many cases however, the pathogenicity of the
RIEMERELLA ANATIPESTIFER INFECTIONS 82.Riemerella anatipestifer (RA) infection is a contagious disease in domestic ducks, turkeys and other fowl. It is encountered as acute or chronic septicaemia and is characterized with serous fibrinous polyserosites. The
FOWL CHOLERA 68. 69.. Fowl cholera is an infectious disease in domestic fowl, waterfowl and other avian species. It is manifested either in acute septicaemic form with a high morbidity and death rates or as chronic local forms (independently or secondary to
PARATYPHOID INFECTIONS 53. Fowl paratyphoid is an acute or chronic disease in domestic fowl and many other avian or mammalian species, caused by some motile Salmonella serotypes that are not host-specific. The highest morbidity and death rates are usually
SALMONELLOSES 36. 37. Pullorum disease is an acute systemic disease in chickens and turkey poults. The infection is trans-mitted with eggs and is commonly characterized by a white diarrhoea and high death rate, whereas adult birds are asymptomatic earners.
Omphalitis (navel infection). It is characterized with reddening and tissue oedema in the umbilical region. 2. Escherichia coli infections are widely distributed among poultry of all ages and categories. They are primarily related to poor hygienic conditions,
Swine Dysentery and Spirochaetal Colitis (Brachyspira [previously Serpulina and Treponema] hyodysenteriae and Brachyspira pilosicoli) Definition Swine dysentery (SD) is a severe, infectious disease characterized by mucohemorrhagic diarrhea and marked
Definition This organism causes severe pleuropneumonia which is a highly contagious disease of swine often characterized by sudden onset, short clinical course, high morbidity, and high mortality. Occurrence Porcine pleuropneumonia (PPN; currently referred to
Definition A widespread, chronic respiratory disease of swine characterized by coughing, growth retardation and reduced feed efficiency. Occurrence Mycoplasmal pneumonia of swine (MPS, also referred to as “enzootic pneumonia,” EP) is a common, widely
Porcine epidemic diarrhea virus (PED virus or PEDV) is a coronavirus that infects the cells lining the small intestine of a pig, causing porcine epidemic diarrhoea, a condition of severe diarrhea and dehydration. Older hogs mostly get sick and lose weight
Definition PRRS is an acronym (porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome) for a viral disease characterized by two overlapping clinical presentations, reproductive impairment or failure in breeding animals, and respiratory disease in pigs of any age. PRRS
Abstract Background Canine parvovirus type 2 (CPV-2) was first identified in the late 1970s; it causes intestinal hemorrhage with severe bloody diarrhea in kennels and dog shelters worldwide. Since its emergence, CPV-2 has been replaced with new genetic
Abstract Toxoplasma gondii is an obligate intracellular protozoan parasite that causes the most common parasitic zoonosis worldwide in multiples species of mammals and birds. Although free-range chickens may play a role as an important reservoir for T.
Abstract Type I/III interferons provide powerful and universal innate intracellular defense mechanisms against viruses. Among the antiviral effectors induced, Mx proteins of some species appear as key components of defense against influenza A viruses. It is
Abstract This study aimed to evaluate the sampling method for the detection of Ascaris suum larval DNA in chicken livers using real-time PCR. Chickens were inoculated with A. suum eggs of a single dose (Group A) or repeatedly low doses (Group B). White spots